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Type 2 Diabetes, What Is It, What Causes It, And How Is It Treated?

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy. When you eat, your body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar, which is then released into your bloodstream. Insulin, a hormone made by your pancreas, helps your cells absorb sugar from the bloodstream for use as energy.

In people with type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use insulin effectively (insulin resistance). This causes sugar to build up in the bloodstream, leading to high blood sugar levels.

High blood sugar levels can damage your cells, tissues, and organs over time. This can lead to serious health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and nerve damage.


What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not fully understood, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Some of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:

  • Being overweight or obese

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes

  • Physical inactivity

  • Certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

  • Certain medications, such as steroids

  • Age (over 45)

  • Gestational diabetes

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Treated?

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication.

The goal of treatment is to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. This can help prevent or delay the onset of serious health problems.

Lifestyle changes that can help manage type 2 diabetes include:

  • Losing weight

  • Eating a healthy diet

  • Exercising regularly

  • Quitting smoking

Medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes include:

  • Metformin

  • Sulfonylureas

  • Thiazolidinediones

  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors

  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

  • Insulin

The type of medication you take will depend on your individual needs.

Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Managing type 2 diabetes can be challenging, but it is important to take steps to keep your blood sugar levels under control. By following your doctor's advice and making lifestyle changes, you can live a long and healthy life with type 2 diabetes.

Here are some tips for managing type 2 diabetes:

  • Check your blood sugar levels regularly.

  • Take your medication as prescribed.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Exercise regularly.

  • Lose weight if you are overweight or obese.

  • Quit smoking.

  • Get regular checkups with your doctor.

By following these tips, you can take control of your type 2 diabetes and live a long and healthy life.


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